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Major factors affecting the distribution of macrophytic vegetation in the watercourses of the European Economic Community. 1982. Proceedings EWRS 6th Symposium on Aquatic Weeds 1982, 105112.
Macrophytes potentially cause flood hazards in lowlands, alluvial plains and some hill areas in the EEC. Within these landscape types, the proportion of areas with hazardous vegetation varies between countries and regions, and so does the economic importance of removing this hazard.
Weed control is an unintended side-effect of various other river uses. Domestic and industrial effluents frequently prevent much vegetation development. Stream straightening to improve drainage may lead to shallow eroding near-empty channels. Re-shaping small streams as narrow sunk channels, tree-shading and navigation are also important.